如何掌控听力

2009-05-13 08:09:54 都市家教(教育交流)·理论版 2009年4期

李如锋

自从我国实行九年义务教育以来,国家教育行政部门对初级中学的教科书进行了一系列的改革,特别在初级中学的英语教材,逐渐走上了听、说、读、写的综合轨道。几年来,听力测试也被列入对学生的各种英语测试之中,并且被作为升学考试的内容之一。听力测试是英语语言考试最为难于通过的一关,答题的易难,给答好后面题目产生一定的心理影响。英语听力测试具有考试时间短,录音放过答题也跟着结束并转入下一题的特点。因此,要想考试过好听力关,要有一定的知识和技巧,在平时的训练及测试中,应做到如下几个应试方面的技巧:

一、充分做好心理上应试的准备。听录音前要尽量放松好情绪,调整好心态,清除紧张的心理,对答题要有自信心,如这道题听不清楚,不要顾虑,思想不要停留在这道题,而要抓紧时间准备好下一个问题,以免耽误时间,错过解答下一题的机会。

二、要预习好听力部分的题目。在放录音材料前,一定要把各题目的各项要求,各个问题或选项了解清楚,做到心中有数,有底。看到选项后,要有预见性,判断要回答的问题所在。有的对话或短文问题,选项都已给出,通过提前对问题的预习能有效地了解其大意和听力重点。这样在听录音时就能做到有的舍取。

三、注意听好听力内容。审好听力题目,避免对问题答非所问,有的考生能听明白录音内容,但忽视了问题的主旨,导致答错题目。如下面题目:

听力原文:

Peter and his three friends are in his bedroom. We can see five books on the table. There are some flowers near the books. Are all the pictures on the wall? No, there are three pictures and a map. Whats that under the chair? Is it his hat? No, its a black cat. It looks like a hat.

题目:听短文,根据短文内容选择正确答案。

()1.There are children in the bedroom.

A. threeB. fourC. five

()2.There is a under the chair.

A. mapB. hatC. cat

第1题的正确答案是B,而许多考生却选择A,忽视了Peter这个人,只注意到three friends 因此导致选错了答案。第2题的正确答案是C,考生没有听清楚是hat还是cat,导致有些考生选择了B。

四、要做到耳、目、手、脑密切配合。耳朵要注意听录音内容的同时,眼睛要看好选项,做到正确选项,而且头脑要迅速分析和思考听力内容,在听完录音后及时做答。做到尽量减少差错。

五、做到带着问题听录音。不管在平时听力训练或测试都要做到这一点,听录音时,要把注意力集中到含有答案的词句上,例如题目中出现有关when, where, who, what, why, how等带有疑问的词,心中选出确定这些问题的答案。对于那些对话、短文内容,第一遍听不清楚的问题,把它作为听第二遍的重点。当然,需要特别精力集中,毫不分心。例如:

听力原文:

Helen is eleven years old. She is in Grade 4 in a school. She goes to school by bus. Last week she had a bad cold. She felt weak and sick. She didnt go to class. She went to the hospital to see a doctor. She had to stay in bed for a few days. During the weekend, Mrs White cooked her nice food and her friends looked after her well. Seven days later, Helen got well again. She was able to go back to school. Now Helen is working hard to catch up with the other students in her class.

题目:根据你所听到的短文内容,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出正确答案回答所提问题.

()1. How old is Helen? p;

A. 10. B. 11.C. 12.

()2. How does she go to school?

A. By bike.B. On foot. C. By bus.

()3. Why didnt Helen go to school?

A. Because she was ill.B. Because her father was ill.C. Because her brother was ill.

()4. What did Mrs White do during the weekend?

A. She cooked nice food. B. She washed clothes. C. She cleaned the room.

()5. How long did Helen stay in bed?

A. Several months.B. Several weeks.C. Several days.

从短文中的第1句Helen is eleven years old得出第1题答案是B。从第3句She goes to school by bus得知第2题答案是C。从第4句she had a bad cold得知第3题答案是A。从第9句During the weekend, Mrs White cooked her nice food得知第4题答案是A。从倒数第3句Seven days later, Helen got well again得知第5题答案是C。

六、要做到速记听力有关内容。在听录音,要用自己熟练的符号来速记,将比如年、月、日、星期、钟点、年龄、价码等数字和关键词尽量记下,并做好必要的换算,对于人名和地名可记下首字母或汉字。等录音放完后再回头补充完整。

七、注意表示转折和否定意义的关键词和词组。表示转折的常用词是but,听者要注意but后的部分。表示否定意义的词和词组主要有no, not, never, seldom, hardly, neither, too…to…, little, few等。存在这些表示否定词的句子,往往容易使考生误解,模糊,所以考生有必要特别注意。这样对理解听力内容很有帮助。例如:

听力原文:

1.M:My dog is lost. Could you look for it with me, please?

W:Sure. Is that black one yours?

M:No. Mine is yellow.

2.W:My bike is broken. Could you help me, John?

M:No, but Jeff can.

3.W:Its a fine day, isnt it?

M:Yes. But the radio says it will be cloudy tomorrow.

4.W:He is a rich man here.

M:Really? But he has few friends.

题目:听对话,从下面题目中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项回答所提问题

()1. What color is the mans dog?

A. Black.B. Yellow.C. White.

()2. Who can mend the girls bike?

A. Jeff. B. John.C. Mary.

()3. Whats the weather like tomorrow?

A. Its sunny. B. Its cloudy. C. Its windy.

()4. Does the man have many friends here?

A. Yes, he does.B. No, he doesnt. C. I dont know.

第1组对话的问句中虽然出现black,但回答是No,紧接着是yellow,很明显答案应是B。第2组对话虽然出现两个人名John 和Jeff,但答句中的转择but Jeff can很明显,只有Jeff能修好自行车,

答案是A。第3组从对话出现的But the radio says it will be cloudy tomorrow.就得知第3题答案是B。第4组对话出现But he has few friends表示否定的句子,所以第4题的答案是B。

总之,要顺利通过英语听力测试,除了做到以上的七个方法以外,关键要做到平时多听、多练。在平时训练的过程中则要严格要求自己,从简单到复杂,从易到难。尽可能把所听到的句子、段落、篇章都听清楚。我相信经过对考生的不断训练,考生的听力水平将会得到提高,取得满意的效果。