Chinese State Councilor and Minister of National Defense Wei Fenghe gave a speech at the 18th Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore on June 2， stating Chinas stance on international security cooperation. An edited excerpt follows：
The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. Destabilizing， uncertain factors and challenges continue to rise. Chinese President Xi Jinpings great vision of building a community with a shared future for humanity is the answer to the harmonious coexistence of people across the world， the effective solution to global problems and the right path toward world peace and human progress. We take note that the U.S. expounded on its perspective on regional affairs on June 1. We believe that any such perspective should take into account the common security and interests of regional countries. No approach to regional issues should resort to military blocs or undermine the interests of others. We hold different views from the U.S. side on several issues and firmly oppose its erroneous words and actions concerning Taiwan and the South China Sea. Lets consider the following questions：
First， which should we choose， peace and development or confl ict and confrontation？ Peace and development remain the call of our times and the trend of history. However， global and regional hotspots fl are up one after another and the risk of confl ict and war persists. What is the cause of regional wars and conflicts， the spread of terrorism， the chaos in the Middle East and the refugee crisis in Europe？ Who is behind all of this and what is the root cause？ These are the questions to be reflected upon. Some deliberately create division and hostility， provoke confrontation， meddle in regional affairs， interfere in the internal affairs of others and frequently resort to arms. Whose interests on earth do they serve and whose do they harm？
Second， which should we choose， openness and inclusiveness or isolation and exclusiveness？ See the world with an open and inclusive mind， and there will be friends and partners everywhere. See the world with a narrow and exclusive mind， and there are only enemies and adversaries. This is a self-fulfilling prophecy. However， lately we are seeing a growing backlash against globalization and a surge of protectionism. A certain country champions unilateralism， puts its own interests before others， and withdraws from international treaties and organizations. Arent there many countries suffering from its willful infringements and sanctions？
Third， which should we choose， winwin cooperation or a zero-sum game？ Winwin cooperation makes the pie bigger and brings more benefi ts to all， while the zerosum game has no winners and harms the interests of both sides. Currently， over 150 countries and international organizations have joined the China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative. Not long ago， over 6，000 delegates from 150 countries and 92 international organizations gathered in Beijing for the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. People can tell what is right.
Fourth， which should we choose， mutual learning among civilizations or arrogance and prejudice？ A few weeks ago， China successfully hosted the Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations. We believe that human civilizations are and should be colorful， equal， inclusive and willing to learn from each other. Not a single civilization should be worshiped or belittled. There are some scars and tragedies in the history of human civilization which will not go away， such as the enslavement of Africans， the expulsion of Native American Indians， the colonization of Asia， Africa and Latin America， and the killing of Jewish people. Unfortunately， some people have recently picked up the decadent idea of the “clash of civilizations.” As racist and narrowminded as it is， this is not right. How can we tolerate such a regression of history？
Those who are familiar with Chinas modern history should know that the country was once poor and weak and went through enormous misery. The Chinese people know only too well the value of peace and the cruelty and destructiveness of war. Over the years， some have been recklessly hyping up， exaggerating and dramatizing the “China threat theory，” partly due to the lack of understanding of Chinas history， culture and policies， but more likely due to misunderstandings， prejudices or even a hidden agenda.
China sticks to the path of peaceful development. Such a commitment is underpinned by Chinas socialist system， its independent foreign policy of peace and its cultural tradition that values peace and harmony. China shall follow the path of peaceful development which is a solemn commitment to the people of China and the world. This has been written into the Constitution of the Communist Party of China （CPC） and the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China （PRC）， reaffi rmed as the will of the CPC and the state. If this is not convincing enough for some people， then we dont know what would make them believe it. Over the past 70 years since the founding of the PRC， China has never provoked a war or confl ict， nor has it ever invaded another country or taken an inch of land from others. In the future， no matter how strong it becomes， China shall never threaten anyone， seek hegemony or establish spheres of influence. History has proven， and will continue to prove， that China will not follow the beaten path of big powers seeking hegemony after growing strong. Hegemony does not conform to the countrys values and national interests.
China adopts a military strategy of active defense. Its military strategy adheres to the principles of defense， self-defense and post-strike response. It stresses that “we will not attack unless we are attacked， but we will surely counterattack if attacked.”Thus， China develops its military entirely for self-defense， with the purpose of defending the country and providing our people with a peaceful working environment， and ensuring that our people are free from the disasters of war and enjoy a better life. We have never bullied or preyed on others， but we shall not let others bully or prey on us either. China develops its military to cope with security threats. An example can be found in the past when we had to develop nuclear capabilities of our own under nuclear threat. Chinas defense expenditure is reasonable and appropriate. It enhances national defense in order to meet the legitimate needs of defending its own security as well as contributing to the world force for peace.
The Chinese military is dedicated to safeguarding national sovereignty， security and development interests. The Peoples Liberation Army （PLA） is the peoples force under the leadership of the CPC. It has fought many battles and is not afraid of sacrifice. In the face of aggression， coercion or hardships， the PLA has stridden forward from victory to victory. The more severe the pressure and diffi culties are， the stronger and braver the Chinese people become. Adversity only brings our nation greater solidarity and strength. This is evident in the lyrics of the Chinese national anthem： “Arise， all those who do not want to be enslaved. Lets build the new Great Wall with our fl esh and blood.” Faced with daunting and complex security challenges， the PLA vows not to yield a single inch of the countrys sacred land， but it shall not seize anything from others either. The PLA has no intention of causing anyone problems， but it is not afraid to face up to troubles. Should anyone risk crossing the bottom line， the PLA will resolutely take action and defeat all enemies.
The Chinese military stays committed to safeguarding regional and world security and stability. China is an active supporter of UN peacekeeping operations. It is the largest troop contributor among the permanent members of the UN Security Council and a major fund donor. We have established a peacekeeping standby force of 8，000 troops that is ready to be deployed. For years， China has been active in promoting bilateral and multilateral security cooperation. The China-Russia Comprehensive Strategic Partnership of Coordination has been operating at a high level. The state-to-state and military-tomilitary relations between China and the U.S. remain generally stable， despite twists and difficulties. We have strengthened the sense of shared destiny with ASEAN countries， deepened traditional friendships with India， Pakistan and other South Asian countries， maintained peaceful coexistence and good-neighborliness with surrounding countries， and built good relationships with the countries and militaries of Africa and Latin America. In October， China will host the Ninth Beijing Xiangshan Forum. We welcome defense and military leaders and scholars from all over the world to attend.
China advocates that all countries—big or small， strong or weak， rich or poor—are equal members of the international community. We should respect and accommodate the legitimate security concerns of one another. China understands and respects the sovereignty， independence and territorial integrity of all countries， and supports the social systems and development paths they independently choose. China is not able to progress in isolation from the rest of the world， and the world also needs China to prosper. We do not covet the interests， nor envy the development， of others. However， we shall never give up our legitimate rights and interests. No country should ever expect China to allow its sovereignty， security or development interests to be infringed upon. As for the recent trade friction started by the U.S.， if it wants to talk， we will keep the door open. If it wants a fi ght， we will fi ght until the end. As the general public of China says these days： “Talk？ Welcome. Fight？ Ready. Bully us？ No way.”
I would like to further illustrate Chinas position on a few issues you may be interested in.
First， on Taiwan. The Taiwan question bears on Chinas sovereignty and territorial integrity. Not a single country in the world would tolerate secession. I visited the U.S. last year. American friends told me that Abraham Lincoln was the greatest American president because he led the country to victory in the Civil War and prevented the secession of the U.S. The U.S. is indivisible， so is China. China must be and will be reunifi ed. We fi nd no excuse not to do so. If anyone dares to split Taiwan from China， the Chinese military has no choice but to fi ght at all costs for national unity.
I have a message for the Democratic Progressive Party authorities [in Taiwan] and external forces. First， no attempts to split China shall succeed. Second， foreign intervention in the Taiwan question is doomed to failure. We took note that the U.S. side mentioned the Taiwan Relations Act in June 1 speech. Is it a Chinese law or an international law？ We can find no justifiable reason for the U.S. to interfere in the Taiwan question by its domestic law. Third， any underestimation of the PLAs resolve and will is extremely dangerous. We will strive for the prospects of peaceful reunifi cation with utmost sincerity and greatest efforts， but we make no promise to renounce the use of force. Safeguarding national unity is a sacred PLA duty. If the PLA cannot safeguard the unity of our motherland， what do we need it for？
Second， on the South China Sea. The current situation in the South China Sea is improving toward greater stability， attributed to the common efforts of the countries in the region. However， there are always people trying to rake in profi t by stirring up trouble in the region. Before the summit， I paid a visit to Viet Nam and Singapore and reached broad consensus with General Ngo Xuan Lich （Viet Nams Minister of National Defense） and Dr. Ng Eng Hen （Singapores Minister for Defense） on maintaining stability in the South China Sea. I will now discuss a few questions concerning the issue.
First， who on earth is threatening security and stability in the South China Sea？ Over 100，000 ships sail through the South China Sea each year. None has been threatened. The problem， however， is that in recent years， some countries outside the region have come to the South China Sea to flex their muscles in the name of freedom of navigation. The large-scale force projections and offensive operations in the region are the most serious destabilizing and uncertain factors in the South China Sea.
Second， who would benefit and who would suffer from chaos in the South China Sea？ We， the regional countries， are the ones who will bear the brunt. What is the purpose of certain countries sending military vessels and aircraft from far away to the region？ Arent there enough examples of some big countries intervening in regional affairs， making trouble， walking away and leaving a mess behind？
Third， should the stability in the South China Sea be maintained by countries in the region or outside the region？ China and ASEAN countries have made positive progress in negotiating the South China Sea code of conduct. We hope that relevant parties will not underestimate the wisdom and ability of regional countries to properly handle differences and maintain peace. However， we welcome constructive suggestions from all countries.
Fourth， is Chinas construction on its South China Sea islands and reefs militarization？ It is the legitimate right of a sovereign state to carry out construction on its own territory. China built limited defense facilities on its islands and reefs for self-defense purposes. Where there are threats， there are defenses. In the face of heavily armed warships and military aircraft， how can we stay impervious and not build some defense facilities？
Third， on the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea （DPRK） nuclear issue. China is committed to the denuclearization， peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula and a negotiated solution through dialogue and consultation. In recent years， the Chinese side has made active efforts to promote peace talks and played an irreplaceable and constructive role. We hope that the U.S. and the DPRK will accommodate each others concerns with cool heads and patience， work toward the same goal and resume the dialogue for peace at an early date. The U.S. and the DPRK should follow the dual-track approach and combine denuclearization with the establishment of a peace mechanism. We hope that the international community will respond positively to the legitimate concerns of the DPRK， trigger the reversible clause of UN Security Council resolutions in due course， push for a declaration on the end of the war， and actively build trust among all parties.
Fourth， on China-U.S. relations. This year marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and the U.S. Despite all the ups and downs， China-U.S. relations have been steadily growing in the past 40 years. The most valuable lesson we have learned from the four-decade-long relationship is that cooperation benefits the two sides while confrontation hurts both. Looking forward， the countries should follow the consensus reached by the two heads of state and promote a China-U.S. relationship featuring coordination， cooperation and stability. Through continued communication， the two countries militaries have agreed on many important issues. First， in terms of implementing the consensus reached by the heads of state， the two militaries agreed on building their relationship as a stabilizer for overall relations. Second， we agreed on maintaining regular communication on the strategic level. On May 31， I had a candid and practical discussion with Acting Secretary of Defense Patrick Shanahan. We reaffirmed the importance of maintaining communication and to develop a constructive military-to-military relationship. Third， in terms of managing risks and preventing confl icts， the two sides recognized that military confl icts or even a war between them would bring disasters to both countries and the world. It takes two to cooperate， but only one to start a fi ght. We hope that the U.S. side will work with us toward the same goal， follow the principles of non-conflict， non-confrontation， mutual respect and win-win cooperation， and steer the China-U.S. relations in the right direction.
Chinas achievements in the past 70 years， since the PRC was founded， are not a windfall or a handout from others. Neither was it made by engaging in military expansion or colonial exploitation. Instead， the country has developed through its peoples hard work， wisdom and bravery as well as win-win cooperation with the world since reform and opening up. At present， under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core， China is enjoying political stability， social cohesion and steady economic growth. Blessed with peace， harmony， prosperity and good governance， the country is making progress on all fronts. The Chinese people are committed to realizing the Chinese dream of great national rejuvenation. The Chinese military is ready to work with the armed forces of other Asia-Pacifi c countries to jointly respond to challenges， promote the building of an Asia-Pacific community with a shared future and safeguard peace and stability in the region.