reduce vt. 减少
disagree vi. 不同意;意见不合
ban vt. 禁止
affect vt. 影响;对……有坏影响
recognise vt. 认识;认知;认出
drug n. 毒品;药品
cancer n. 癌症
cigarette n. 香烟
tobacco n. 烟草;烟丝
danger n. 危险
needle n. （注射用的）针;针管
crime n. 罪行;犯罪行为
criminal n. 罪犯
connection n. 联系;关系;关联
treatment n. 治疗
adult n. 成人
café n. 咖啡馆
powerful adj. 有力的;（药等）有功效的
illegal adj. 违法的;不合法的
likely adj. 可能的
horrible adj. 令人不快的;极讨厌的
related to 有关系的;有关联的
break into 破门而入;强行闯入
belong to 属于
become addicted to 对……上瘾;沉迷于
take ones advice 听取某人的意见
in order to 為了……
so as to 为了……
give up 戒除;放弃
as a result of 由于……的结果
die from 死于……
continue to do 继续做……
share with 与……共享
ask for 请求;要求
in danger 处于危险中
put up 提高;增加
break the law 违法
in public 当众
agree/disagree with 同意/不同意
indicate vt. 指出;指示
arrest vt. 逮捕;拘捕
estimate vt. & vi. 估计;估价
kingdom n. 王国
article n. 文章
studio n. 播音室;录音室
intonation n. 语调
mood n. 心情
trigger n. （枪）扳机;引起反应的事（或行动）
prematurely adv. 过早地
不定式在句中作目的状语时，常译成“为了”。不定式一般放在被修饰词之后，但为了强调目的也可以放在句首。为了加强语气，不定式前还可以加上in order或so as，即构成词组。例如：
We should do whatever we can （in order/so as） to help them.
结果状语从句通常由以下从属连词引导：so... that...，such... that...等。例如：
It was such a dangerous drug that he nearly died.
1. reduce vt. 缩减;减少;降低
The new law will reduce the pollution of rivers.
（1）reduce by 减少了……
Production was reduced by twenty percent.
（2）reduce to 减少到……
The number of employees was reduced to 25.
reduction n. 减少;缩小;降低
2. disagree vi. 不同意;不一致;不相符
Even friends disagree sometimes.
（1）disagree （with sb） about/on/over sth 就某事不同意（某人）
He disagrees with his parents on many things.
I disagree with you about this thing.
（2）sth disagree with sb（尤指食物）对某人不适宜
Ice cream always disagrees with me.
Do these dishes agree with you？
（3）disagree with sth 不赞成;反对;不一致
I disagree with violent protests.
These two reports of the accident disagree with each other.
3. recognise vt. 认识;认知;认出
（1）recognise sb/sth （by/from sth） 认识;认出;辨别出
I recognised her by her red hair.
Do you recognise this tune？
（2）recognise sth as sth 承认;意识到
Drugs were not recognised as a serious problem at that time.
（3）be recognised （as sth） 赞赏;看重;公认
The book is now recognised as a classic.
（4）recognise that从句 意识到……
We recognised that the task was difficult.
注意：recognise是短暂性动词，因而不能与表时间段的时间状语连用。例如，“我认识你三年了。”不能翻译为“I have recognised you for three years.”应把recognised改为known。
4. danger n. 危险
（1）泛指一般意义的“危险”时，通常是不可数名词。表示做某事的危险或发生某情况的危险等时，通常后接of （doing） sth，而不接不定式。
Is there any danger of fire？
The children didnt realize the danger of swimming in the river.
注意：通常不说“... the danger to swim in the river”。
（2）in danger （of ） 处于（……的）危险中
He is in danger of losing his life.
Were in danger of being hit by a stone.
He is a danger to society.
Do you know the dangers of smoking？
out of danger 脱离危险
5. connection n. 联系;关系;关联;连接
（1）in connection with 与……有关
He was arrested in connection with this affair.
（2）connection with sth; connection between A and B
He refused to admit any connection with the bombing.
Scientists have established a connection between heart disease and food.
（3）connection to sth 联结;接通;连接
Connection to the gas supply has been delayed for three days.
connect vt. 连接;联系;关联
connect... to... 使（电源、水等）联结;接通
be connected with... 与……有联系
6. likely adj. 可能的
（1）be likely to do 可能……
Tickets are likely to be expensive.
She is not likely to come next month.
（2）Its likely that从句 可能……
Its more than likely that the thieves dont know how much it is worth.
7. affect vt. 影响;对……有坏影响
This article affected my thinking.
Does this change affect your plan？
Smoking affects health. 吸烟影响健康。
The noise from the street affected our work.
8. ban vt. & n.（明令）禁止;取消
The government has banned the use of chemical weapons.
There is a ban on smoking in the theatre.
ban sb from （doing） sth
He was banned from （attending） the meeting.
9. related to 有关系的;有关联的
The traffic accident might be related to the rain at that time.
Sometimes， crime is related to drug abuse.
relate v. 联系;叙述
relate... to... 把……与……联系起来
relate... （to sb） 向某人叙述
She relates her childhood experiences in the first chapters.
relate to sth/sb 涉及;谈到;与……相关
The second paragraph relates to the situation in England.
10. break into 破门而入;强行闯入;突然开始
We had to break into the house because we had lost our key.
She broke into tears when I told her the news.
break in 闯入;打断;插嘴
break down 出故障;坏掉;失败
break out 突然開始;爆发
break up 粉碎;破碎;结束
11. belong to 属于（不用于进行时和被动语态）
D. Looking for a good fitness program.
3. What does the underlined word “it” in the last paragraph refer to？
A. The pain. B. The exercise.
C. The goal. D. The body.
4. Where does the text most probably come from？
A. A textbook. B. A science novel.
C. A health magazine. D. A guide book.
Something in chocolate could be used to stop coughs and lead to more effective medicines， say UK researchers.
Their study found that theobromine （可可堿）， found in cocoa， was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine， which was considered the best cough medicine at present.
The researchers who published their results online said the discovery could lead to more effective cough treatment. “While coughing is not necessarily harmful， it can have a major effect on the quality of life， and this discovery could be a huge step forward in treating this problem，” said Professor Peter Barnes.
Ten healthy volunteers were given theobromine， codeine or placebo， a pill that contains no medicine， during the experiment. Neither the volunteers nor the researchers knew who received which pill. The researchers then measured levels of capsaicin （辣椒素）， which is used in research to cause coughing and as a sign of how well the medicine are stopping coughs.
The team found that， when the volunteers were given theobromine， the capsaicin need to produce a cough was around a third higher than in the placebo group. When they were given codeine they need only slightly higher levers of capsaicin to cause a cough compared with the placebo.
The researchers said that theobromine worked by keeping down a nerve activity， which caused coughing. They also found that unlike some standard cough treatments， theobromine caused no side effects such as sleepiness.
5. What can we learn about theobromine？
A. Its harmful to peoples health.
B. Its the best headache medicine.
C. It may cause people to feel tired.
D. It can be a more effective cure for coughs.
6. What was used in the experiment to cause coughing？
A. Theobromine. B. Codeine.
C. Capsaicin. D. Placebo.
7. What can we learn about the volunteers in the experiment？
A. They were divided into three groups
B. They were patients with bad coughs
C. They received standard treatments
D. They suffered little side effects
8. What is the best title for the text？
A. Codeine： A New Medicine
B. Chocolate May Cure Coughs
C. Cough Treatment： A Hard Case
D. Theobromine Can Cause Coughs
A businessman was on a business trip to Tokyo. One day he went to 1 some gifts for his employees back in his country. He 2 a supermarket. A lady smiled and 3 him. He was very touched， and felt 4 . Because he was not able to
5 the warmth of her smile， he was watching her as he was
6 . She was giving the same 7 to all the people who walked into the supermarket.
The businessman started 8 if she hated doing the 9
thing. So he asked， “My dear lady， are you 10 of doing this job？”
The lady smiled and said， “No， sir. I have 11 here for the last ten years and I 12 my job.” The businessman was
13 and asked， “Why have you stayed here for ten years， and why do you like your job so much？” The lady said， “Because I am doing something good for my 14 .” The businessman found it 15 . He asked， “Why？”
The lady said， “As most of our customers are 16 ， they spend foreign currency here. So our country has a lot of 17
and becomes richer. People who are happy with our service will 18 more often and spend more money in our country.”
Surprised by her 19 ， the businessman thanked her. After returning to his own country he worked hard to show the same attitude towards his 20 ， and today his company is one of the best companies in the world.
1. A. buy B. order C. make D. pay
2. A. opened B. searched C. entered D. checked
3. A. welcomed B. thanked C. invited D. answered
4. A. upset B. relaxed C. good D. nervous
5. A. require B. enjoy C. hide D. forget
6. A. traveling B. passing C. moving D. shopping
7. A. look B. smile C. gift D. word
8. A. deciding B. asking C. thinking D. knowing
9. A. boring B. same C. small D. difficult
10. A. fond B. tired C. proud D. afraid
11. A. stood B. learned C. worked D. lived
12. A. love B. prefer C. keep D. respect
13. A. worried B. excited C. frightened D. surprised
14. A. home B. country C. supermarket D. boss
15. A. interesting B. hard C. humorous D. clear
16. A. visitors B. managers C. strangers D. foreigners
17. A. money B. pleasure C. food D. people
18. A. praise B. visit C. talk D. save
19. A. action B. service C. attitude D. help
20. A. friends B. family C. workers D. partner
Rivers are one of our most important natural resources. Many of the worlds great cities are located on rivers， almost each country has at least one river flowing through it that （play） an important part in the lives of its people.
Since the （begin） of history， people have been using rivers for transportation. The （long） one in the United States is the Mississippi， and the lifeline of Egypt is the Nile. Besides transportation， rivers give water （drink）， water for crops， and （chance） for fun and entertainment for the people who live along their banks.
， large cities and industries which are located on rivers often make problems. the cities grow in size and industries increase in number， the water in the rivers becomes （pollute） with chemicals and other materials. People need to learn the （important） of doing more to keep their rivers clean if they want to enjoy the benefits of this natural resource.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
It turns out that happy cows produce better milk. The finding is not new. The California Milk Advisory Board has been saying it for years. But now a team of researchers is helping farmers have happier herds.
The researchers are visiting milk farms and showing farmers how to make their cows live better. Their advice and information is available around the world on their website.
One important area for discussion is how to prevent leg pain， a condition also called lameness. Lameness impacts everything a cow gets to do in her day. It impacts the way she rests， the way she milks， the way she eats， her ability to reproduce and finally her ability to stay on the farm. A bed of sand can provide a good place for cows to lie down during the day. The deep， soft bedding of sand creates an environment where cows can rest half the day， and that is extremely important to cows.
The researchers advise farmers to provide bigger stalls， the areas where cows are kept in a barn. They also say farmers should use more fans to keep the animals cool， and feed all their cows at the same time.
And researchers say it is a good idea to keep cows with their usual group of friends when it comes time for them to give birth. This helps reduce the stress for the cows.
Mitch Breunig owns the Mystic Valley Dairy in the US state of Wisconsin. He says he used the advice to improve the conditions for his 400 cows. Since he made the changes， Breunig says the dairys production has increased. His cows have gone from producing 49 liters of milk a day to almost 57 liters.
Also， his cows have fewer injuries and live about a year longer than before. That is good for the animals—and for people， too.
1. Why are the researchers visiting milk farms？
A. To help improve cows living conditions.
B. To gather information from cow farmers.
C. To create new cow farms for better milk.
D. To help cow farmers prevent cow diseases.
2. What is Paragraph 3 mainly about？
A. The harm of leg pain and how to solve it.
B. How to make a bed of sand for cows.
C. The proper atmosphere cows need.
D. What cows need most in their life.
3. What should farmers do when cows give birth？
A. Feed them at the same time.
B. Leave them near their friends.
C. Provide bigger room for them.
D. Use more fans to keep them cool.
4. What can be the best title for the text？
A. Advice on How to Keep Cows More Comfortable
B. Cow Farmers Welcome Researchers to Their Farms
C. Ways to Make Cows Produce More Milk
D. Better Conditions Make for Happier Cows
One thing that really gets up my nose is breathing other peoples cigarette smoke against my will. Its about time that smoking in public places was stamped out once and for all.
There is nothing worse than coming home from a bar or club after an evening out and finding that your clothes smell disgusting， because they have been saturated （浸透著） with cigarette smoke.
Cigarette smoke. Im not the only one who is born with this and Im not some born non-smoker. I just wish that I had a choice whether or not I came home smelling like a dirty ashtray （烟灰缸）.
Another thing that I really hate is walking down the street behind someone smoking a cigarette. Every time they breathe， out comes that cloud of stale smoke and you walk straight into it and aside from crossing over the other side of the street. There is very little you can do about it. It is not a pleasant experience and it is one I could live quite happily without.
I know there are a lot of people in this country that smoke. Ill be willing to bet that someone who are reading this article are fed up with people who dont smoke. They are always harping on （唠叨） about their “bad habit” and telling them what to do. The simple fact is that smokers are affecting the health of non-smokers as well as their own.
People die each year just because they have breathed other peoples smoke and that is something we really should be taking seriously. In my opinion a completely ban on smoking in public places is the only way forward.
5. The underlined phrase “gets up my nose” in the first paragraph probably means “___”.
A. cheers me up
B. makes me angry
C. smells something out
D. turns my nose towards something
6. What can we learn about the author from Paragraph 2？
A. He has an ashtray in his home.
B. He thinks the smell of cigarettes disgusting.
C. He often smokes a lot of cigarettes in a bar.
D. He is unwilling to come home from a bar late at night.
7. What is the author strongly against？
A. Taking in second-hand smoke.
B. Crossing over the other side of the street.
C. Walking across the street with nothing to do.
D. Smoking behind someone while walking down the streets.
8. What is the main idea of the text？
A. Smoking is bad to both smokers and non-smokers.
B. Smoking should be banned in public places.
C. Smoking should be punished heavily.
D. Smoking is a bad habit.
Staying focused can help you complete studying for a test or your work an hour early. There are various practical steps to help you focus better.
1 Whether youre doing work in your office or studying at home， having a clean space can help you focus and get your work done with more attention. Remove what can attract you from your work or the task.
Make a to-do list. If you list all the things to do， however small， you will feel more successful when you check those items off your list. 2
Give yourself a certain time for each task. Managing your time goes hand in hand with your to-do list. Write down how long itll take you to finish each task on the list. For example， you could write， “Go over the notes： 30 minutes. Do the homework： 2 hours. 3 ” Then， try to complete each task within each given time.
Make time for breaks during the day. You should take at least a 5—10 minute break for every hour of work， or a 3—5 minute break for every half an hour of work. 4 Take breaks in a place where you wont be troubled， so that you can relax your mind. 5 Sometimes you can also look out of the window， take a short walk outside， or just walk up a few stairs. These short breaks will make you more energetic to return to your work.
A. Organize your workspace.
B. Setting a goal will do good to you.
C. Prepare for the new lesson： 25 minutes.
D. Its not easy to get yourself better focused.
E. You may regularly get up during your breaks.
F. This will also keep you focused on one task at a time.
G. A break will prepare your mind for the next task ahead.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Judging people by what he or she looks like has become a common practice in our daily life. Is it wise to do so？ The 1 is “no”.
One day， a（n） lady and her husband， both in old but tidy clothes， walked into the office of Harvard University without being . The president could in a moment that they had no business at Harvard， and probably werent supposed to here. For hours， the president took no notice of them， hoping that they would become discouraged and go away. However， they didnt. Then the lady said with great care， “We had a son that Harvard University. He loved Harvard. Unfortunately， he was killed . We would like to donate （捐錢） a building to Harvard University in memory of our son.” The president was at what he heard. He at the ordinary woman， “Donate a building？ Do you have an how much a building costs？ We more than seven million dollars setting up a chemistry lab， can you to set up a building？”
The lady was for a moment. The president was ： He could get rid of them now. The lady turned to her and said quietly， “Is that all costs to start a ？” Her husband said， “Yes.” The couple walked away， traveling back to Palo Alto， California where they built a university after their son—Stanford University， which turned out to be a famous university in America.
1. A. power B. answer C. result D. attitude
2. A. strict B. elderly C. lovely D. funny
3. A. pulled B. separated C. turned D. dressed
4. A. presidents B. customers C. managers D. students
5. A. discovered B. injured C. admitted D. invited
6. A. tell B. support C. express D. prefer
7. A. visit B. check C. move D. stay
8. A. quickly B. quietly C. finally D. easily
9. A. attended B. respected C. recognized D. supposed
10. A. on purpose B. in total C. by accident D. at present
11. A. shocked B. angry C. bored D. upset
12. A. shouted B. laughed C. stared D. pointed
13. A. impression B. idea C. agreement D. aim
14. A. spent B. prepared C. avoided D. saved
15. A. announce B. afford C. raise D. mean
16. A. embarrassed B. thankful C. absent D. silent
17. A. amazed B. touched C. disappointed D. pleased
18. A. son B. husband C. assistant D. friend
19. A. restaurant B. hotel C. university D. hospital
20. A. followed B. took C. sought D. named
“Can I get a light？” This question is among the most common between smokers. What if this question was to come from an unusual source？ The National Health Promotion Foundation uploaded an anti-smoking advertisement onto YouTube. The anti-smoking ad has quickly been known as the “most powerful anti-smoking ad”.
The anti-smoking video， called the “Smoking Kid” features children walking up to adult smokers asking for a light. The children in the ad are actors but the adults smoking are unsuspecting participants in the project.
The video begins with the statement “adults know that smoking is harmful， but dont remind themselves of this fact.” Once a “smoking kid” approaches the adults， every adult asked is shocked that a child with a cigarette in hand is asking for a light. The first adult starts by saying， “Im not giving it to you，” and the video goes on to state “every adult filmed said no and reminded the children that smoking is bad.”
Before going away， the kid hands each adult a booklet after being turned down for a light. The booklet says， “You worry about me， but why not about yourself？” Each adult looks around for the child as their faces are filled with confusion and discomfort.
The video shows that a few of the smokers quickly threw away their cigarettes or put their cigarettes away， showing that this experiment was effective at that moment.
The most influential element in the ad isnt the use of children or the responses from the smoking adults. It comes down to something much simpler than that. Why is it that we worry about other people， forgetting to worry about ourselves？
1. According to the text， the anti-smoking ad is ___ .
A. discomfortable B. encouraging
C. influential D. shocking
2. What does the underlined word “unsuspecting” in Paragraph 2 mean？
A. Unwilling. B. Uninformed.
C. Unfortunate. D. Unacceptable.
3. What are the adults reactions to the children asking for a light？
A. They look around for their parents.
B. They refuse and educate them.
C. They pay no attention to their request.
D. They quickly throw their cigarettes away.
4. What can be the best title for the text？
A. Give up Smoking， for Your Own Sake
B. Keep away from Smoking， Adults
C. Reject a Child Asking for a Light
D. Tell Your Children not to Smoke
Healthy Habits for Living Longer
Many of us are set in our daily habits. We eat the same meal， wear the same clothes， take the same route to work and work the same old job. But what we sometimes fail to recognize is the huge influence that our daily habits can have on our health. It is very important for us to keep our daily habits healthy. 1
Take some exercise every day. Daily exercise does improve our health. In fact， studies show that daily exercise can add three years to our life. Opportunity for exercise is everywhere—just be creative. Whenever we can， walk to work.
2 Its really that simple.
Eat a healthy breakfast. Researchers have found that those who eat an early morning meal are less likely to be too fat and get diseases compared with those who dont. 3 All in all， eating breakfast is a great and healthy way to start our day.
Have enough sleep. 4 Failing to get at least seven hours of sleep appears to increase the risk of major illnesses including cancer， heart disease， diabetes and many more.
Get chances to communicate. 5 Any social communication can positively affect our health because we can have more time and chances to communicate with others. All of these can add years to our lives.
A. Breakfast-eaters also report feeling better.
B. Not enough quality sleep can shorten our life.
C. Exercise also helps us keep away from illnesses.
D. If we live or work in a tall building， just take the stairs.
E. Theres an old saying that says a good friend is cheaper than treatment.
F. Finding time for regular exercise can be rather impossible for many people.
G. By making just a few small changes and keeping them， we can add a few years to our life.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
disagree danger power relate inject crime
addict reduce illegal connect awful drug
1. The doctor ____ the drug into my arm at that moment.
2. Airline personnel can buy air tickets at ____ prices.
3. The traffic here is very ____ for children.
4. All things are ____ to all other things.
5. He does not smoke or take ____ .
6. A prison is a place for punishing ____ .
7. Cigarettes are highly ____ ， so youd better never start to smoke.
8. How did you realize that there was a（n） ____ between the two facts？
9. The headmaster made a（n） ____ speech at the first day
10. If you park your car ____ here on the street， youll receive a parking ticket soon.
1. 这一地区的犯罪大都与毒品有关。（be related to）
2. 小偷闯入办公室偷了一些錢。（break into）
3. 你现在应该听父母的意见，努力学习。（take ones advice）
4. 孩子们每次过这条马路都面临着生命危险。（in danger）
5. 为了看得更清楚，老人戴上了他的眼镜。（in order to）
Great changes have been taken place in my village. Ten years ago， the small and low houses， which lie on the north of a lake， produced much waste. As the result， the lake was serious polluted. To the west was a sandy field， that was the source of dust. Better still， a brickyard on the southwest side of the lake used up a great deal good soil. Now the poor house have been replaced by green trees and the brickyard by tall buildings. The sandy field that the villagers used to planting crops has been covered with fruit trees. On the lake the villagers often spend his spare time boating and fishing.
请根据提示，以“Smoking Is Harmful”为题，结合你所见所闻的中学生吸烟情况，写一篇英语短文，向时代英语杂志社投稿。内容包括：