Reading Comprehension阅读理解

2020-11-10 11:21
时代英语·高三 2020年5期
关键词:生態每题选项

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

(一)

A

SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT PACKS

SAME GREAT DEVONDALE QUALITY

From the green pastures (牧场) of Australia comes Devondale, Australias largest community of farming families. The people at Devondale blend dairy goods and clever ideas to bring you great tasting innovative (创新的) products, which has been shipped to America, Canada and exported to Austria.

Like our lightest one—instant skim (脱脂的) milk powder that makes 10 litres of delicious skim milk. So you never run out of milk again.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE:

TO MIX 1 CUP (250ML)

● Add 1/4 cup (25g) of instant Devondale Skim Milk Powder to 1/2 cup of hot or cold water.

● Add more water to make up 1 cup.

● For best result always add powder to water.

● For richer taste and extra nutrition, use additional powder to suit your personal taste or preference.

● To improve the natural taste of this product, we recommend storing the liquid milk in the refrigerator overnight prior to consumption.

NOTICE:

● Store powder in a cool, dry place.

● Keep refrigerated at or below 4 degrees Centigrade no more than 3 days.

● Once opened, store in an airtight container.

1. What word can best describe the people in Devondale?

A. Creative. B. Kind. C. Curious. D. Interesting.

2. What should a user do if he/she wants the milk to taste natural?

A. Add some sugar to the milk. B. Remove the cream from the milk.

C. Put it in the fridge before using it. D. Increase its amount in the liquid milk.

3. Where should you put the powder left over?

A. In a warm room. B. In a plastic bowl.

C. In a watertight jar. D. In a closed container.

B

A 23-year-old British woman has invented a product that she hopes will one day take the place of single-use plastic. The new product is made by combining fishing waste and algae (藻類).

Lucy Hughes created the material, called MarinaTex, for her final year project at the University of Sussex. She continued her research after she left the university.

MarinaTex is edible, meaning it can be eaten without danger. Hughes says it is also strong and stable. But unlike plastic, MarinaTex breaks down in four to six weeks under normal conditions and does not pollute the soil.

The inventor said she is concerned about the growing amounts of plastics in ocean waters. She noted one report that there would be more plastic than fish in the worlds oceans by the year 2050.

Hughes also was investigating ways to reduce the amount of waste from the fishing industry. The industry produces an estimated 50 million tons of waste worldwide each year, UN officials say.

Hughes told Reuters that she was “trying to work out how I could use the waste stream and add value to that waste.” Examining fish parts left over from processing helped to give her the idea for a material that was useful and did not harm the environment.

Inventor James Dyson said that MarinaTex is “stronger, safer and much more sustainable” than the plastic polyethylene. It is also easier to break down than other possible replacement products for polyethylene, the material that single-use plastic bags are made of.

Hughes will receive about $41,000 in prize money as the first place winner of the James Dyson Award. She told Reuters that she plans to use the money to better develop the product and ways to mass produce it.

4. When did Lucy Hughes create MarinaTex?

A. At university. B. After graduation.

C. Before going to university. D. After winning the James Dyson Award.

5. What can we learn about MarinaTex according to Paragraph 3?

A. It can be made into food. B. It is environmentally friendly.

C. It is a type of plastics. D. It exists for a long time in nature.

6. What helped to give Hughes the idea for MarinaTex?

A. Observing the process of fishing. B. Studying different parts of a fish.

C. Checking waste from the fishing industry. D. Examining left-over fish parts after cooking.

7. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?

A. Entertainment. B. Education. C. Lifestyle. D. Technology.

C

Close your eyes for a minute and imagine what life would be like if you had a hundred dollars less. Also imagine what it would be like spending the rest of your life with your eyes closed. Imagine having to read this page, not with your eyes but with your fingertips.

With existing medical knowledge and skills, two thirds of the worlds 42 million blind should not have to suffer. Unfortunately, rich countries possess most of this knowledge, while developing countries do not.

ORBIS is an international non-profit organization which operates the worlds only flying teaching eye hospital. ORBIS intends to help fight blindness worldwide. Inside a DC-8 aircraft, there is a fully-equipped teaching hospital with the television studio and classroom. Doctors are taught the latest techniques of bringing sight back to people here. Project ORBIS also aims at promoting peaceful cooperation among countries.

ORBIS tries to help developing countries by providing training during three-week medical programs. ORBIS has taught sight saving techniques to over 35,000 doctors and nurses, who continue to cure tens of thousands of blind people every year. ORBIS has conducted 17 plane programs in China so far. For the seven to ten million blind in China, ORBIS is planning to do more for them. At the moment an ORBIS team is working on a long term plan to develop a training center and to provide eye care services to Shanxi Province. ORBIS needs your help to continue their work and free people from blindness.

For just $38, you can help one person see; for $380 you can bring sight to 10 people; $1,300 helps teach a doctor new skills; and for $13,000 you can provide a training program for a group of doctors who can make thousands of blind people see again. Your money can open their eyes to the world. Please help ORBIS improve the quality of life for so many people less fortunate than ourselves.

8. What is the purpose of the first paragraph?

A. To introduce a way of reading. B. To advise the public to lead a simple life.

C. To direct the readers attention to the topic. D. To encourage the public to use imagination.

9. What can we learn about existing medical knowledge and skills in the world?

A. They are enough in quantity. B. They have not been updated.

C. They are not equally distributed. D. They have benefited most of the blind.

10. How does ORBIS help the blind?

A. By teaching medical students. B. By training doctors and nurses.

C. By running flying hospitals globally. D. By setting up non-profit organizations.

11. What does the author try to do according to the last paragraph?

A. To appeal for donations. B. To make an advertisement.

C. To promote training programs. D. To show sympathy for the blind.

D

“Hope has proved a powerful predictor of outcome in every study weve done so far,” said Dr Snyder, a psychologist.

In research with 3,920 college students, Dr Snyder found that the level of hope among freshmen at the beginning of their first term was a more accurate predictor of their college grades than were their SAT scores or their grade point averages in high school. “Students with high hope set themselves higher goals and know how to work to attain them,” Dr Snyder said, “When you compare students with equal learning ability and past school achievements, what sets them apart is hope.”

In seeking a way to assess hope scientifically, Dr Snyder went beyond the usual belief that hope is merely the sense that everything will turn out all right. “This idea is not concrete enough; it fails to clarify two key components of hope,” Dr Snyder said. “Having hope means believing you have both the will and the way to accomplish your goals, whatever they may be.”

Despite the wisdom in the old saying “Where theres a will, theres a way”, Dr Snyder has found that the two are not necessarily connected. In a study of people from 18 to 70 years old, Dr Snyder discovered: only about 40% of people are hopeful in the technical sense of believing they typically have the energy and means to accomplish their goals; about 20% of the people believed in their ability to find the means to achieve their goals, but said they had little will to do so; another 20% have the opposite pattern, saying they had the energy to motivate themselves but little confidence that they would find the means; the rest had little hope at all, reporting that they typically had neither the will nor the way.

“Its not enough just to have the wish for something,” said Dr Snyder. “You need the means, too. On the other hand, all the skills to solve a problem wont help without the willpower to do it.”

12. What does Dr Snyder think can best predict a freshmans academic performance?

A. His SAT scores. B. His high school grades.

C. His level of hope. D. His family background.

13. What does the underlined word “them” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. College grades. B. Higher goals.

C. Past school achievements. D. Average grade points.

14. What did Dr Synder say about the old saying “Where theres a will, theres a way”?

A. It is quite realistic for most people. B. It is not inspiring to students.

C. It is useful in the old days. D. It is not always true in reality.

15. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. No Pains, No Gains B. Hope Is Recognized as Key to Success

C. Will Gets It Going D. Where Theres a Will Theres a Way

(二)

A

The online business model is changing on a satisfaction-first basis. It doesnt matter if someone recommended you an app, nothing beats getting to try out the app first before deciding on whether or not to apply for the service.

● Rhapsody

Listen to Rhapsodys large music library and get the option to download and listen to songs or even full-length albums when youre offline. At the moment, this service is available in 32 countries only. Remember that youll need to cancel within the free trial period to avoid being charged for your first month.

[Trial period—14 days | After trial—$9.99/month | Try now]

● Bigstock

Need to save photos for your presentations and artworks? Go to Bigstock to check out their collection from top artists and photographers around the world. Choose from over 30 million photos, and illustrations (插圖), with 75,000 images coming in every new week. All you need to start your free trial is your email address.

[Trial period—7 days | After trial—$79/month | Try now]

● Canvas

If you are drowning in paperwork, perhaps it is time to use Canvas and transfer all your paperwork online. Digitalize your work orders, forms etc. so that they can be filled up and completed right on any mobile device. This makes it easy to create, edit, gain valuable data and send it to the people who need it in seconds.

[Trial period—30 days | After trial—$13/month | Try now]

● Backupify

If you have ever lost your phone, you know how important it is to backup (备份) all your important documents, notes, contacts and other personal details. Get cloud-to-cloud protection of up to 3 PB of data with Backupify. You can backup your data for Google apps, Office 365, various social media sites and even Salesforce.

[Trial period—15 days | After trial—$3/month | Try now]

To learn more about the Apps above, Click Here.

1. Who is more likely to use the app Canvas?

A. A secretary. B. A photographer. C. An artist. D. A musician.

2. What can be of some help to save photos?

A. Bigstock and Canvas. B. Backupify and Bigstock.

C. Rhapsody and Backupify. D. Rhapsody and Canvas.

3. What do the apps above have in common?

A. They offer free entertainment services. B. Users will access them via email accounts.

C. They can help improve users work skills. D. Users can try them without paying.

B

It was graduation day at the university where I work and a beautiful day quite unlike the first graduation I attended as a young professor. On that cold day years ago, as we watched the students walking into the hall, one of my colleague turned to me and said, “Graduation will be one of the happiest and one of the saddest time of your life.” At my inquiry, he answered, “Because the students you have gotten to know have to leave.”

As years went by, my previous confusion about my colleagues words no longer existed. When I came across naughty students, I have had to rethink why I chose to be a teacher. It obviously isnt the money. Once a former computer science student of mine called me, asking me if I wanted to have a change. He was working at Nintendo Corporation. His salary was higher than my current one, though I have more education and have worked for over a decade. With my programming skills, he said he could get me hired. I thanked him, but declined his kind offer.

A few days before this current graduation, while working on final grades, I found a note a student had slipped in with her homework. She thanked me for being her teacher and said the things she had learned in my class—not about math, but about life—would be things she would remember long after the math skills had faded away. As I finished reading, I remembered why I had become a teacher.

Now, on this sunny graduation day, as I again observed the sea of blue hats and gowns, I did so with renewed dedication and a deeper sense of satisfaction—I will always be grateful that I am a teacher.

4. How did the author feel when he heard his colleague talking about graduation for the first time?

A. Satisfied. B. Puzzled. C. Shocked. D. Sad.

5. The computer science student called up the author ___ .

A. to inform the author of his present job B. to persuade the author to work with him

C. to thank the author for being his teacher D. to share his joy and satisfaction with the author

6. What does the underlined part “blue hats and gowns” in the last paragraph refer to?

A. School life memories.  B. Graduates clothes.

C. Graduation ceremonies. D. Decorations in the hall.

7. What is the authors purpose in writing the text?

A. To express his devotion to teaching. B. To talk about the meaning of graduation.

C. To give advice on how to be a good teacher. D. To compare two different graduation ceremonies.

C

The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a persons needs.

Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communication among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops, what maybe implied (暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.

Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic under discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.

Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patients silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.

8. What does the author say about silence in conversations?

A. It implies rudeness. B. It promotes friendship.

C. It is culture-specific. D. It is content-based.

9. Who might regard silence as a call for careful thought?

A. The Chinese. B. The French.

C. The Mexicans. D. The Russians.

10. What does the author advise nurses to do about silence?

A. Let it continue as the patient pleases. B. Break it while treating patients.

C. Evaluate its harm to patients. D. Make use of its healing effects.

11. What is the best title for the text?

A. Sound and Silence B. What It Means to Be Silent

C. Silence to Native Americans D. Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold

D

Being young is associated with all the good things in life—beauty, hope, and energy. But youth also has negative associations—impulsiveness, trouble-making, and irresponsibility. This negative side seems to be what society focuses on more, which is why young people have mostly been considered as idle and difficult.

But when it comes to Generation Z—those born between 1996 and 2010—this stereotype doesnt seem to apply anymore.

In Japan, for example, Gen Z-ers are less likely to buy on impulse, but take into consideration more a products true value. “Theyre looking at the companies, not just the products,” Masahiko Uotani, CEO of Japanese cosmetics company Shiseido, told Bloomberg. “Theyre asking, ‘Are they really delivering value to the society? Are they promoting diversity and inclusion?”

Gen Z-ers are also more grounded than weve expected them to be. According to a recent survey by Bank of America, more than half of young adults aged between 18 and 23 said they were planning to buy a house within five years. And theyre not just saying it—they are willing to make sacrifices for it, including getting a second job and saving money for down payment instead of spending it on a vacation.

“Despite their young age, this group is pragmatic and actively planning for their future,” D. Steve Boland, head of Consumer Lending at Bank of America, told USA Today. “They have a clear vision (設想) how they are willing to help themselves in order to make it happen.”

Social issues are also at the center of concern of Gen Z-ers, who take themselves as a changing force of the world. In India, for example, young people who have just reached the voting age are eager to vote for a new leader who is capable of solving problems that matter the most to them, including pollution, unemployment and womens safety.

As a Gen Z-er yourself, what is your plan for the future?

12. What does the underlined part “this stereotype” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Being young is good. B. Gen Z-ers are born after 1996.

C. The traditional poor impressions on the youth. D. The associations with young people.

13. What can we infer about Gen Z-ers in Japan from Paragraph 3?

A. They are picky. B. They are self-centered.

C. They care little about products. D. They are wise when shopping.

14. What is Steve Bolands attitude to the Gen Z-ers?

A. Approving. B. Negative. C. Indifferent. D. Critical.

15. Which of the following best describes the Gen Z-ers?

A. Confident and independent. B. Visionary and responsible.

C. Hard-working and down-to-earth. D. Active and creative.

(三)

A

Health, Wellness and Politics of Food

9:00—9:45 AM/Blue Tent

Panelists (專题讨论小组成员): Jami Bernard, David Kamp, Marion Nestle and Peter Singer.

Moderated (主持) by Denise Grady, science writer for The New York Times.

How does what we eat not only have effect on our bodies, but also the world? This group of food and nutrition experts discuss the role that diet plays in both personal and global health and food politics.

Sports Writing: For the Love of the Game

9:50—10:35 AM/Blue Tent

Panelists: Christine Brennan, Ira Rosen, Joe Wallace and Joe Drape.

Moderated by William C. Rhoden, sports writer for The New York Times.

Whether catching that key moment of victory or defeat, or covering breaking news, sports writers are anything but audience. Listen as some of the industrys professionals discuss their personal experience of reporting sports news.

The Art of the Review

11:15—12:00 AM/Green Tent

Panelists: John Freeman, Barry Gewen, David Orr, Celia McGee and Jennifer Schuessler.

Moderated by Sam Tanenhaus, editor for The New York Times Book Service.

How much of an effect does the book review have on book sales? Join this group of critics as they discuss the reality of book review and bestseller lists, and how they choose books for review.

New York Writers, New York Stories

3:00—3:45 PM/Green Tent

Panelists: Cindy Adams, Richard Cohen, Ric Klass and Lauren Redniss.

Moderated by Clyde Haberman, writer for the city part of The New York Times.

Join this inspired group of New York-centric writers as they talk about why New York is a gold mine of ideas for their works.

1. If you like sports writing, you will most probably ___ .

A. attend the Art of the Review B. enjoy Jami Bernards talk

C. listen to Christine Brennans talk D. go to Green Tent at 3:00 pm

2. Which activity can you take up if you are free in the afternoon?

A. The Art of the Review. B. New York Writers, New York Stories.

C. Health, Wellness and Politics of Food. D. Sports Writing: For the Love of the Game.

3. What do the four activities have in common?

A. They are about writing. B. They will last 45 minutes.

C. They can be attended freely. D. They will invite many readers.

B

Before breakfast, two young people head down to the woods, struggling a little with the heavy bag of food for the pigs. “Scatter them in different piles,” says the farm staff member.

The teenagers are part of a group from a London secondary school who are staying at Jamie Fieldens farm, one of a number of “care farms” providing a type of eco-therapy (生態治疗). The pupils brought here have been chosen by their teachers: 14-year-old Sofia, for example, has a difficult home life, and George, 14, is extremely quiet.

Most of them have never been to the countryside before. For five days, they get up early, eat wholesome food and do various chores dependent on the season. It is summer and they are pulling up coriander (a plant) from the vegetable beds and feeding animals.

Besides farmwork, the young people have group sessions with the farm phychotherapist (精神治疗医师) who teaches them techniques for dealing with difficult situations. They can do horse-whispering with her, one-to-one therapy  making use of one of the farm horses. Phones and sweets are banned, as part of the focus on creating a calm, supportive atmosphere.

And the young people seem to be thriving (茁壮成长). Aaron, a 12-year-old with serious attendance issues, is clearly taken with the horse whispering. “I feel as if the horse is calm and I am calm. I had to work out how to speak calmly to make her do what I wanted.”

A classmate, Hasan, describes a similar feeling, “I expected to be really bored here, but as soon as we arrived it was fantastic.” Hasan has a complicated home life and needs support.

A week after the pupils arrive back at school in west London, teachers report a difference in behavior. There is no doubt that they will continue to send pupils to the farm in years to come.

4. What do pupils at Jamie Fieldens farm have in common?

A. They are animal lovers. B. They prefer country life to city life.

C. They have learning difficulties. D. They are troubled by certain problems.

5. How does the “care farm” function?

A. By encouraging fine teamwork. B. By turning to heavy physical work.

C. By combining farmwork with therapy. D. By building close personal relationships.

6. Why does the author mention Aaron and Hasan?

A. To explain horse whispering. B. To describe the beauty of the farm.

C. To show the effectiveness of care farm. D. To introduce the pupils daily routine.

7. What does the text mainly talk about?

A. The power of nature. B. Behavioral problems.

C. Devoted care workers. D. A special kind of farm.

C

A study has found that middle-aged and older adults who live in greener neighborhoods have a decreased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (代謝综合征) such as obesity, hypertension and high blood sugar.

The study, published in Environmental Pollution, was conducted by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal). It differed from previous studies on the health benefits of green spaces in that it examined all of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome together collectively rather than as individual components. Having metabolic syndrome increases a persons risk for heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

The study from ISGlobal examined data from clinical examinations of over 6,000 British adults who were between 45 and 69 years old when the study began. The data was derived from four examinations participants went through between 1997 and 2013 that included blood analyses, blood pressure and measurements of weight. “These findings suggest that long-term exposure to green spaces can play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome as a whole,” according to a press release published by ISGlobal.

The correlation between nearness to green spaces and better health could be associated with the expanded opportunities for physical recreation and lower exposure to air pollution, according to Carmen de Keijzer, ISGlobal researcher and principal author of the study.

Female subjects were more likely than males to exhibit the studys association between living in greener neighborhoods and having fewer metabolic symptoms. “Women tend to spend more time in their residential neighborhood, which could explain this gender difference,” de Keijzer said. “We need greener cities if we want healthier cities,” de Keijzer added.

8. What can we learn about the study from the first two paragraphs?

A. It was a joint effort of several institutes. B. It was the first of its kind in decades.

C. It involved both the middle-aged and the older. D. It examined symptoms one by one.

9. What does the underlined word “derived” in Paragraph 3 mean?

A. Separated. B. Arrived. C. Gained. D. Demanded.

10. Why do women have fewer metabolic symptoms?

A. They have a lower risk of heart disease. B. They live a greener life.

C. They have a healthier lifestyle. D. They stay more where they live.

11. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Living in Greener and Healthier Cities

B. Women Having Fewer Metabolic Symptoms

C. Metabolic Syndrome Increasing Heart Disease

D. Greener Neighborhoods, Fewer Metabolic Symptoms

D

Diet Coke, diet Pepsi, diet pills, no-fat diet or vegetable diet... We are surrounded by the word “diet” everywhere we look and listen. We have so easily been attracted by the promise and potential of diet products that we have stopped thinking about what diet products are doing to us. We are paying for products that harm us psychologically and physically.

Diet products weaken us psychologically. On one level, we are not allowing our brains to admit that our weight problems lie not in actually losing the weight, but in controlling the consumption of fatty, high-calorie and unhealthy foods. Diet products allow us to jump over the thinking stage and go straight for the scale instead. All we have to do is to swallow or recognize the word “diet” in food labels (標签).

On another level, diet products have greater psychological effects. Every time we have a zero-calorie drink, we are telling ourselves without awareness that we dont have to work to get results. Diet products make people believe that gain comes without pain, and that life can be without resistance and struggle.

The danger of diet products lies not only in the psychological effects they have on us, but also in the physical harm that they cause. Diet foods can indirectly harm our bodies because consuming them instead of healthy foods means we are preventing our bodies from having basic nutrients. Diet foods and diet pills contain zero calorie only because the diet industry has created chemicals to produce these wonderful products. Diet products may not be nutritional, and the chemicals that go into diet products are possibly dangerous.

Now that we are aware of the effects that diet products have on us, it is time to seriously think about buying them. Losing weight lies in the power of minds, not in the power of chemicals. Once we realize this, we will be much better able to resist diet products, and therefore prevent the physical harm that comes from using them.

12. What can we learn about diet products from Paragraph 1?

A. They fail to bring out peoples potential. B. People have difficulty in choosing them.

C. They are misleading people. D. People are fed up with them.

13. One psychological effect of diet products is that people tend to ___ .

A. try out a variety of diet foods B. hesitate before they enjoy diet foods

C. pay attention to their own eating habits D. care about their weight rather than their diet

14. What does the underlined part “gain comes without pain” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

A. Losing weight is effortless. B. Losing weight costs little.

C. Diet products bring no pain. D. Diet products are free from calories.

15. Why can diet products harm people physically?

A. They are misused. B. They lack basic nutrients.

C. They are short of chemicals. D. They provide too much energy.

(四)

A

Heres a selection of festivals for tourists to the United States in summer.

San Francisco Silent Film Festival

Films at this odd cinematic event have a variety of musical accompaniments, including piano and violin. It includes some classic silent movies. If you want to see them all, you can buy a festival pass.

May 29 to June 6; www.silentfilm.org

Union Street Festival

This popular street fair stretches out over six blocks of the city, in the fashionable shopping area of Union Street. This year, theres beer, wine tasting and more separate themes—fashion, cuisine, tech, local crafts, and health and fitness.

June 7 to 10; www.unionstreetfestival.com

North Beach Festival

This is San Franciscos oldest street party, with live entertainment, delicious food and arts and crafts. Situated in the Little Italy district, known for its associations with the “Beat Generation”, festival goers are guaranteed plenty of good Italian food. There is also as the “blessing of the animals”, a San Francisco tradition which takes place at the National Shrine of Saint Francis of Assisi (610 Vallejo Street) at 2 pm on these days of the festival.

June 14 to 16; www.sfnorthbeach.org

Stern Grove Festival

This is the oldest free summer arts festival of its kind in the United States. It includes a wide variety of acts, from the local symphony orchestra to well-known artists such as Smokey Robinson.

Sundays from June 22 to Aug 24; www.sterngrove.org

1. Which festival contains the most themes?

A. San Francisco Silent Film Festival. B. Union Street Festival.

C. North Beach Festival. D. Stern Grove Festival.

2. How is North Beach Festival different from the other Festivals?

A. It lasts the shortest time. B. Festival goers can enjoy food in it.

C. It has the longest history of food. D. Some foreign culture is presented in it.

3. When can you enjoy the oldest arts festival in the United States?

A. Saturdays in June. B. Saturdays in August.

C. Sundays in May. D. Sundays in July.

B

I stood outside my front door catching my breath. After a lazy Christmas holiday, I had to recover from climbing stairs with carry-on bags and a suitcase. I looked up and blinked. Red tape crossed the door. I didnt understand Hungarian, but the one English word said enough: “POLICE”.

Google Translate told me I would be arrested if I entered, so I didnt. Finally, I called my rental agent. He went to the police station for more details.

My agent returned with authorization to enter. Not only were my files undisturbed, but so were the TV and printer. The burglars had taken a few items from the top drawer as well as a small amount of foreign currency in the bottom drawer. Somehow they hadnt found the jewelry box in the third drawer.

I was in shock. My agents words were fuzzy (模糊的), something about fixing the locks tomorrow and making a list for the police.

Then one day, I remembered that Id left another jewelry box in the flat. My heart sank as I thought of another locket that had been in that box, a gold engraved one with a picture of my late honey Grandma inside. When I realized the box was missing, the whole experience seemed to crash down on me. I cried.

At the end of January, I received a registered letter from the police. The burglar hadnt been found, and the case was closed. I slept with my purse by my bed. I hid my laptop when I showered. And then another challenge rose. I was unexpectedly laid off.

Then one July night, I reached into my third drawer, pulled out my jean shorts, and heard a small thud (砰的一聲). I looked down and blinked: It was the tiny jewelry box I thought had been stolen six months earlier.

Inside was the locket with honey Grandma smiling at me, being there for me, telling me not to give up. I started to cry.

4. What did the red tape across the authors door mean?

A. There was a burglary here. B. The house couldnt be entered freely.

C. The rent had to be paid quickly. D. The rental agent advertised for the house.

5. What did the agent promise to do?

A. To fix the locks the next day. B. To report the burglary to the police.

C. To have an iron security gate fixed. D. To pay for missing things for the author.

6. Which can best describe the change of the authors feeling after she learned of the burglary?

A. puzzled→ anxious→ relaxed B. shocked→ sorrowful→ nervous

C. shocked→ desperate→ hopeful D. puzzled→ relieved→ confident

7. What is the best title for the text?

A. Red Tape B. A Jewelry Box

C. “Lost” Smile D. Grandmas Advice

C

Goldfish have pretty boring lives, so maybe its a good thing they can only concentrate for nine seconds! But according to a new research, humans are becoming like goldfish. Our attention span (時长) is getting shorter... and its all because of technology.

“We move quickly from one site to another on the web,” says Doctor Ted Selker, a computer scientist from Massachusetts, “and we are losing the ability to concentrate.” With millions of websites to choose from, the attention span of the average Internet user is just seconds. There are other digital distractions too: e-mail, instant messaging and quickie movies on websites.

Some people are worried about the effect on young people. “You need time to understand and think about what you read,” says Julia Wood, from London. “Young people search the net all the time and their brains become full of useless information but there is no time to make sense of it. I am trying to persuade my pupils to read more books, so that they concentrate on one subject for longer.”

Other teachers are trying more unusual methods to improve students concentration. Anne Savan, from Wales, was so worried about her students that she started playing Mozart during her science lessons. She said that it had an amazing effect: “The music made them calmer, and their concentration was much better.”

But not everyone believes that there is a problem. Ray Cole, an educational psychologist said, “On the web, young people learn to make quick decisions about what is and isnt worth reading. They might look at five unhelpful websites very quickly, before stopping and reading a sixth useful website more carefully. In a world with so much information available, this is an important skill.”

8. Why does the author mention “goldfish”?

A. To analyze data. B. To introduce the topic.

C. To settle problems. D. To suggest a way out.

9. What may cause a shorter attention span according to Dr Ted Selker?

A. Skipping on the Internet. B. Making quick decisions.

C. Reading in traditional ways. D. Digesting too much information.

10. What will help students overcome a short attention span?

A. Receiving e-mails. B. Texting messages.

C. Reading more books. D. Watching quickie movies.

11. What is Ray Coles attitude towards looking through websites quickly?

A. Cautious. B. Unfavorable. C. Ambiguous. D. Supportive.

D

For many people, being on the job might just sound like a picnic compared to a day at home filled with housework, meals and childcare. Even for those with a happy family life, home can sometimes feel more taxing than work.

In a new study, researchers at Penn State University found significantly and consistently lower levels of cortisol (皮質醇) released in response to stress, in a majority of subjects when they were at work compared to when they were at home. This was true for both men and women, and parents and people without children.

Both men and women showed less stress at work. But women were more likely to report feeling happier there. Men were more likely to feel happier at home. Experts say there are other reasons why work is less stressful than home for many. “Paid work is more valued in society,” says Sarah Damaske, the lead researcher on the study. “Household work is boring and not particularly rewarding.”

We get better at our job with time and the increased competence means less stress and more rewards. Yet none of us, no matter how long weve been doing it, ever truly feels like an expert at parenting or even at marriage.

The support and friendship of co?workers also offer stress relief. At home, meanwhile, stress spreads and accumulates quickly. “Thats the reason why most housewives wish they were the bread earners,” Dr Damaske says.

Much of the advice to families and couples includes the warning to leave work stress at the office and even to change our mindset from work to home, for example, a walk around the block. The recent findings, though, suggest our home life, not our attitude, might be due for some change.

12. Which of the following can replace the underlined word “taxing” in Paragraph 1?

A. Stressful. B. Cheerful. C. Worthwhile. D. Rewarding.

13. What did the research in Paragraph 2 prove?

A. Men felt better at work. B. Women felt they had less time.

C. Women were easier to feel happier. D. Most people felt more stress at home.

14. What do most people think of work at the office?

A. It is competitive. B. It improves ability.

C. It cant relieve stress. D. It doesnt always pay off.

15. According to the recent findings, what should we change to solve the problem mentioned?

A. Our attitude. B. Our mindset.

C. Our home life. D. Our working style.

(五)

A

Places to Spend Christmas in Canada

Quebec City

Quebec City would be a great place to spend the holidays, with stone streets, soft white snow, and some of the most historic and striking architecture in Canada. And theres a lot going on in the capital of La Belle Province, including an authentic German Christmas market where you can drink hot wine and look for gifts, and the chance to meet Santa Claus himself at Fairmont Le Chateau Frontenac Hotel.

St. Johns, Newfoundland

In St. Johns, Newfoundland, people would disguise (偽装) themselves in whatever small objects they could find in their homes and show up on their neighbours doorsteps singing, dancing and celebrating—and not removing their masks until the neighbours correctly guessed their identities. This fun and festive tradition lives on with an annual Christmas festival, complete with workshops and a big parade that shows these simple disguises.

Niagara Falls, Ontario

The illumination (照明) of the magnificent waterfalls is part of Niagara Falls annual Winter Festival of Lights, which sees more than three million lights lighted throughout the city. There are also weekly fireworks over the falls during the whole festival, and a number of other festive events, including musicals, shopping fairs and concerts.

Saskatoon

There are few bigger thrills than being a kid at Christmas, especially if you live in Saskatoon. A recent study by the University of Torontos Rotman School of Management found that Saskatoon has the highest number of candy and toy stores, in the country, and a very good probability of having snow on December 25. Its the perfect combination for a magical Christmas! Grown-ups will also appreciate the booming food scene.

1. Where can you go if you are interested in historic buildings?

A. Quebec City. B. St. Johns. C. Niagara Falls. D. Saskatoon.

2. What is special about Niagara Falls during Christmas?

A. Market. B. Wine. C. Light. D. Snow.

3. Who will be more likely to feel excited at Christmas in Saskatoon?

A. Babies. B. Children. C. Grown-ups. D. Senior citizens.

B

Ashok Gadgil has spent the past three decades helping people in need—and he has no plans to stop. On May 2, Gadgil won the $100,000 Lemelson-MIT Award for Global Innovation. Each year, the honor is given to an inventor who has improved the lives of people in developing countries. Gadgils inventions have helped more than 100 million people around the world.

Gadgil is a professor and physicist at the University of California. When hes not teaching, he works to find solutions to global problems such as energy efficiency and water safety. He chooses to focus on problems where his knowledge of science can help.

In the 1980s, he came up with a program to make energy-efficient light bulbs more affordable for people in developing countries. Then in the 1990s, Gadgil designed his first life-saving invention, UV Waterworks. The device kills deadly disease—carrying germs (病菌) from drinking water. It costs just one cent to clean five liters of water. Gadgil was inspired to find an inexpensive solution to the clean water crisis after more than 10,000 people in his home country of India died from an outbreak of Bengal cholera, in 1993. The disease is spread through contaminated food and drinking water. So far, the invention has provided safe drinking water to more than five million people in poor areas.

As a professor, Gadgil encourages his students to stay positive about finding solutions to hard problems. “Be optimistic when you try a hard problem,” he says. “Its when you solve a large problem that you can have a big impact on the world.”

4. Gadgil was given Lemelson-MIT Award for ___ .

A. his teaching experience B. his new physical research

C. his vast knowledge D. his helpful inventions

5. What can we learn about UV Waterworks?

A. Its Gadgils first invention. B. Its used to clean water.

C. It was designed for Gadgils home country. D. It saved 10,000 people in total.

6. What does the underlined word “contaminated” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

A. Wasted. B. Consumed. C. Polluted. D. Packed.

7. According to the last paragraph, Gadgil encourages his students ___ .

A. to learn lessons from failures B. to find problems in peaceful life

C. to make inventions to help poor people D. to be confident when facing difficulties

C

The Spanish sculptor Isaac Cordal sees the city as his playground. He specializes in miniature, a street art often representing a social commentary as a critical observation on capitalism, power and so on.

Cordal first models the sculptures in clay then reproduces them in cement (水泥) about 15 cm in height.

“As a material, cement seems very symbolic because it is one of our most recognizable footprints against nature,” he says. “Today we have been too used to cement city habitat.”

For several years hes been working on the project, Cement Eclipses, referring to the state when a building covers the sun: “Its a critical reflection on the idea of progress.”

These tiny cement figures have appeared in cities across Europe, found sitting on top of bus shelters or drowning in the grass land of the big city. “The street became a perfect setting in which I could find enough landscapes for them. Due to their small size and color, they go really well into the urban environment. They even normally go unseen by passersby. Im very interested in that moment of surprise when someone accidentally discovers them,” he says.

“Nowadays there is a fear of not being seen in the public area, so everything is always big and bold. We become a product of this and do not focus on as much. I think it is good to pay attention to small details. My work is a reward for those who do it and allows us to understand and change the world we have created in a different angle,” Cordal says.

8. What does the underlined word “miniature” in Paragraph 1 refer to?

A. Tiny sculpture. B. Small playground.

C. Social comments. D. Critical observation.

9. What is Cordals attitude toward cement city habitat?

A. Cautious. B. Critical. C. Ambiguous. D. Supportive.

10. What does Cordal intend to tell us in the last paragraph?

A. Big things in public are attractive. B. We need to focus on the details of works.

C. Being small may be a fear in public. D. His work helps us to see the world differently.

11. What does the text mainly about?

A. Ways to be a sculptor. B. Cordal and his street art.

C. Materials used for sculptures. D. Reflections on city progress.

D

University of Pennsylvania researchers say that for the first time they have linked social media use to increases in depression and loneliness. The idea that social media is anything but social when it comes to mental health has been talked about for years, but not many studies have managed to actually link the two. To do that, Penn researchers, led by psychologist Melissa Hunt, designed a study that focused on WeChat, Snapchat and Instagram.

The study was conducted with 143 participants, who before they began, completed a mood survey and sent along photos of their battery screens, showing how often they were using their phones to access social media. “We set out to do a much more complete study which attempts to imitate real life,” Hunt said.

The study divided the participants into two groups: The first group was allowed to maintain their normal social media habits. The other, the control group, was restricted to 10 minutes per day on social media. The restrictions were put in place for three weeks and then the participants returned and were tested for outcomes such as fear of missing out, anxiety, depression and loneliness.

The results showed a very clear link between social media use and increased levels of depression and loneliness. “Using less social media than you normally do would lead to significant decreases in both depression and loneliness,” Hunt said.

Social media invites what Hunt calls “downward social comparison”. “When youre online, it can sometimes seem that everyone else is cooler and having more fun and included in more things and youre left out,” Hunt said. And thats just generally discouraging. “Every minute you spend online is a minute you are not doing your work or not meeting a friend for dinner or having a deep conversation with your roommate. And these real life activities are the ones that can encourage self-esteem and self-worth,” Hunt added.

“People are on their devices, and thats not going to change,” she said. But as in life, a bit of control goes a long way.

12. Before the study was conducted, the participants completed a survey to ___ .

A. imitate peoples real life B. link loneliness to depression

C. show their use of social media D. prove social media is important

13. The results of the study showed using less social media would result in ___ .

A. peoples fear of missing out B. higher levels of depression

C. obvious relief in loneliness D. lower levels of happiness

14. In Hunts opinion, which activity benefits more to mental health?

A. Hiking out with friends. B. Taking a short holiday alone.

C. Playing computer games in spare time. D. Using social media and having fun.

15. What is the best title for the text?

A. A Study on Social Media B. Ways to Improve Mental Health

C. People Addicted to Social Media D. Social Media Influences Mental Health

(六)

A

We work with Cambridge County Councils Participation Team to create opportunities for young people to visit the University and learn more about it. The following events are scheduled for the 2020/2021 academic year.

SuperStar Workshops

12 engaging workshops are planned for young people aged 7 to 11. These half-day visits will be held throughout the year, at times when young people are not at school. If participants complete 8 of the 12 workshops, they will be awarded the nationally recognised SuperStar Crest Award.

Please note, workshops will only run if we have a sufficient number of attendees (usually around 3+ participants).

Explore University Days

Explore University Days are for young people aged 12 to 15. Participants visit the University for two days and engage with a range of university-related workshops, and other fun activities. Previous participants have engaged with the following:

? Visited the Sports Centre

? Took part in a Neuroscience Workshop

? Enjoyed a two-course meal at a University College

Dates will be confirmed in early December 2020, and a schedule for event will follow in the New Year.

Events for Post-16 Students

If you are studying for your post-16 qualifications and are considering applying for Cambridge or would like to find out more about a specific subject, the following events might be for you:

? University and College Open Days

? Subject Masterclasses

? Cambridge Science Festival

1. What can the participants do in SuperStar Workshops?

A. To stay a whole day. B. To get a gift.

C. To enjoy a free meal. D. To visit 8 workshops.

2. Which event is specially arranged for applicants of Cambridge?

A. SuperStar Workshops. B. The Neuroscience Workshop.

C. Explore University Days. D. Events for Post-16 Students.

3. What is the purpose of the events in the text?

A. To advertise some courses. B. To introduce Cambridge University.

C. To enrich students spare-time life. D. To promote childrens interest in touring.

B

Adrians “Amazing Race” started early when his parents realized that he, as a baby, couldnt hear a thing, not even loud noises. In a special school for the hearing-impaired (聽觉受损的), he learned sign language and got to mix with other disabled children. However, the sight of all the disabled children communicating with one another upset his mother. She wanted him to lead a normal life. So after speaking to an advisor, she sent him to private classes where he learned to read lips and pronounce words.

Later on, Adrians parents decided to send him to a regular school. But the headmaster tried to prevent them from doing so, saying regular school couldnt take care of a special needs student. His parents were determined to take the risk and push him hard to go through his work every day because they wanted to prove that, given the opportunity, he could do anything. Adrian made the grade and got accepted. It was a big challenge. The pace was faster so he had to sit at the front of the class and really pay attention to the teacher, which wasnt always easy. But he stuck to it and did a lot of extra work after school.

The efforts made by Adrian and his parents paid off. Adrian graduated with good grades and got into a top high school. He also achieved a lot in life outside school. He developed a love for the outdoors and went to Nepal to climb mountains. He even entered the World Yacht Race 05/06—being the first hearing-impaired Asian to do so.

But none of these achievements would have been possible without one of the most important lessons from his mother. “If you believe in yourself and work hard, you can achieve great results,” she often said.

4. How did Adrian communicate with other children in the special school?

A. By speaking. B. By using sign language.

C. By reading lips. D. By making loud noises.

5. Why did Adrians parents decide to send him to a regular school?

A. They wanted him to live a normal life. B. They wanted to prove the headmaster was wrong.

C. He wouldnt mix with other disabled children. D. He wasnt taken good care of in the special school.

6. How did Adrian finally succeed in his study?

A. He did a lot of outdoor activities. B. He managed his school time well every day.

C. He attended private classes after school. D. He worked hard both in and after class.

7. Why is Adrians life described as an “Amazing Race”?

A. He did very well in his study. B. He succeeded in entering a regular school.

C. He reached his goals in spite of his disability. D. He took part in the World Yacht Race 05/06.

C

Picture a lecture session at a business school and you probably imagine students gazing at screens filled with equations (方程式). What you might not expect is students attempting to sing “O Clap Your Hands”. But Bartleby was treated to this delight on a visit to Sa?d Business School in Oxford earlier this year.

There was a catch. Some of the students had to try conducting the chorus. The first to take the challenge was a rather self-confident young man. It didnt take long for him to go wrong. His most obvious mistake was to start conducting without asking the singers how they would like to be directed, though they had the expertise and he was a complete beginner.

The session, organized by Pegram Harrison, a senior fellow in entrepreneurship, cleverly allowed the students to absorb some important leadership lessons. For example, leaders should listen to their teams, especially when their colleagues have specialist knowledge.

Other business schools have also realized that their students can learn from the arts. At Carnegie Mellon University, Leanne Meyer has introduced a leadership-training programme that includes poetry and a book club. She believed that involvement in such pursuits can help develop empathy (認同感) in future leaders and that the programme benefits students in terms of how they promote themselves to recruiters (招聘人员).

The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) has trained many great dramatists. It also offers training courses for managers. “Acting about finding the truth in the character and in yourself,” says Walker Wise, one of RADAS tutors. Being a manager involves a lot more than just setting targets. It requires empathy and a knowledge of human nature. An education in the arts might help develop those qualities. Above all, the students on Harrisons Course were experiencing something Bartleby never expected to see in those attending an MBA lecture and they were having fun.

8. What does the underlined phrase “this delight” in Paragraph 1 refer to?

A. Singing in a business class. B. Visiting Sa?d Business School.

C. Picturing a lecture session. D. Gazing at screens full of equations.

9. Which of the following best describes the session by Pegram Harrison?

A. Common but influential. B. Educational and effortless.

C. Challenging and instructive. D. Controversial but practical.

10. What should a leader do based on the arts of the leadership training programme?

A. Offer promotion opportunities. B. Value team members opinion.

C. Set specific targets. D. Control every step.

11. How does acting contribute to being a manager?

A. It provides entertainment. B. It develops goal-setting skills.

C. It exposes the truth in business. D. It helps understand human nature.

D

In the trailer Sischo was refreshing the snails accommodations—an ongoing routine that takes days of careful work. He had found a dozen of Achatinella bulimoides—a third of the worlds population of the species. Once every individual was accounted for, he cleaned the cage and packed in new leaves. The work took much trouble, but the responsibility, he said, was like “a heavy weight sitting on you”.

The trailer is very vulnerable. Its designed to keep away would-be thieves, and to resist hurricanes. But a fire could easily destroy it, or a disease could sweep through it. Last September, a mystery pathogon (病原体) appeared to have entered the trailer on leaves fed to the snails, killing almost an entire species. As sad as the event was, theres no good way to insure against future catastrophe. The snails cant simply be spread among zoos or other facilities: they need special equipment, experienced handlers, and a diet of native Hawaiian plants.

Consequently, it can be hard for the snails minders (看護人) to relax, even when they are outside the trailer. “How do you switch off, when your decisions mean existence or extinction?” Sischo said. While action lightens the burden, yet with animals whose natural history is largely unknown, that action can be dangerous. “If you do it wrong, the snails die.”

Snails are neither intelligent nor beloved. Sischos friends sometimes tease him about being “the strange snail guy”; strangers ask why he cares. Its hard to convince people, but he insists that if he can just get them in the trailer, they will understand why the Achatinella bulimoides are worth saving. “People melt,” he said. “When I show them that the entire population is in this chamber, it hits them.”

12. What is the trailer used for?

A. Accommodating guests. B. Sheltering snails.

C. Planting vegetables. D. Alarming thieves.

13. What does the underlined word “vulnerable” in Paragraph 2 mean?

A. Very quiet. B. Quite safe. C. Easily affected. D. Well protected.

14. How do the snail minders feel about their job?

A. Relaxed. B. Confident. C. Cautious. D. Dangerous.

15. What is the best title for the text?

A. The Last of Its Kind B. The Worst of Times

C. Mourn Its Loss D. Resist Possible Dangers

(七)

A

If you follow these insider tips, your photos will look like you had the place to yourself at the popular tourist attractions.

Vatican Museums: Vatican City

The Vatican draws more than five million people each year, and queues can reach four hours during peak season. Christie Hudson, senior communications manager at Expedia, recommends choosing a skip-the-line tour. “This not only lets you avoid the ticket counter, but also includes the use of a private partner entrance.” Extra time to visit the Sistine Chapel? Yes!

Bamboo Forest: Kyoto, Japan

Bamboo Forest is the most worthy sight in Kyoto. If youre longing to enjoy the pathways and take pictures in total quietness, Kyoto Arashiyama Travel Guide recommends hitting the famous Bamboo Grove Path as early in the morning as possible—think 7 am if youre up for it. Dont miss these hidden treasures you can only witness in Japan.

Chichen Itza: Yucatán, Mexico

Home to E1 Castillo and the Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza is a must-see. Want to beat the rush? Schedule an early tour that takes place before a site opens to the public. Led by an archaeologist guide, its full of fascinating insights and facts—without tons of pack-wearing tourists.

Louvre Museum: Paris, France

The Louvre is one of the most popular museums on the planet. If waiting around in line to get in isnt the way you prefer to spend your time in Paris, consider purchasing a reserved ticket. This will give you entry to the pyramid within a half-hour window. The Louvre is also open until 9:45 pm on Wednesdays and Fridays, if youre up for some late-night art visits.

1. What is recommended at Vatican Museums by Christie Hudson?

A. Buying tickets in advance. B. Visiting off the peak season.

C. Taking a skip-the-line tour. D. Visiting the Sistine Chapel first.

2. What is the choice for early tourists to avoid the rush?

A. Vatican Museums and Bamboo Forest. B. Chichen Itza and Bamboo Forest.

C. Bamboo Forest and Louvre Museum. D. Chichen Itza and Louvre Museum.

3. Who is the text mainly intended for?

A. Visitors interested in museums. B. Guides at the tourist attractions.

C. People at the ticket counter. D. Tourists to beat the rush.

B

I grew up in a busy family, both parents working jobs that demanded their attention. I was little and rushed around, always at risk of moving too quickly, missing the bus and making mistakes.

Luckily, my enthusiasm for the world took me from the troubles at home to climbing mountains. When I was 19, I learned something called the “rest step” from an old mountain climber. He advised me to rest in the middle of each step completely but briefly. The rest step, which I still practice today, allows me to move quickly yet still find a pause in every step. Even when needs seem most urgent, the practice of slowing down offers calm and clarity.

In 1987, I was in Pakistan to climb Gasherbrum Ⅱ. It was a very big mountain. Our expedition (探險队) faced more than its share of difficulty: A long storm wiped out most of our goods and an avalanche (雪崩) destroyed our camp site. One of our party developed altitude sickness. In the face of each disaster, we carefully developed a new plan. Snow caves replaced lost tents. Soups replaced full meals. Eventually we climbed slowly to the top, and then made our way safely down.

There is magic in any faith. Every once in a while, my belief in pace rises up, slows me down and shows me a view of a sunset, a smile from a stranger or a conversation with a child. I owe these moments to what I learned from an old mountain climber and have practiced ever since.

4. What was the author like when he was little?

A. He didnt have a steady character. B. He didnt get along with his parents.

C. He was unable to focus his attention. D. He wasnt fond of mountain climbing.

5. According to Paragraph 2, “rest step” is a way ___ .

A. to keep practicing B. to be devoted to what you love

C. to pause a while to do better later D. to have a rest after climbing a mountain

6. How did the authors expedition survive the disasters?

A. By having full meals. B. By living in the tents.

C. By saving their goods. D. By changing their plan.

7. What is the best title for the text?

A. Every Step Counts B. A Magic Experience

C. An Old Mountain Climber D. The Practice of Slowing Down

C

The English-language version of Wikipedia has almost six million articles. And if youre a cheating student, thats six million essays already written for you. But plagiarism (剽竊) isnt really an effective way—just type the text into a search engine and the game is over. Then what about having a ghostwriter compose your final essay?

“Standard plagiarism software cannot detect this kind of cheating,” said Stephan Lorenzen, a data analyst at the University of Copenhagen. In Denmark, where hes based, ghostwriting is a growing problem at high schools. So Lorenzen and his colleagues created a program called Ghostwriter that can detect the cheats.

At its central part is a neural (神经的) network trained and tested on 130,000 real essays from 10,000 Danish students. After reading through tens of thousands of essays labeled as being written by the same author or not, the machine taught itself to tune into the characteristics that might tip off cheating. For example, did a students essays share the same styles of punctuation? The same spelling mistakes?

By examining inconsistencies like those, Ghostwriter was able to seek out a cheated essay nearly 90 percent of the time. The team presented the results at the European Meeting on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning. Theres one more aspect here that could help students. Your high school essays probably get better over time as you learn to write—and the machine can detect that. The final idea is to detect students who are at risk because their development in writing style isnt as youd expect. Teachers could thus give extra help to kids who really need it, while sniffing out the cheaters too.

8. What can we learn from the first two paragraphs?

A. Plagiarism can be detected easily in a certain way.

B. Essays offered by Wikipedia cant be downloaded.

C. Hiring a ghostwriter is a good choice for cheating students.

D. Ghost cheating can be detected by standard plagiarism software.

9. What aspect of the program “Ghostwriter” is talked about in Paragraph 3?

A. Its components. B. Its weaknesses. C. Its influences. D. Its working theory.

10. What can we learn about Ghostwriter according to the last paragraph?

A. It never fails to find out a cheated essay. B. It relieves teachers of giving extra help.

C. It can detect a students progress in writing. D. It can guide a student to correct his writing style.

11. Where is this text most likely from?

A. A guidebook. B. A magazine. C. An advertisement. D. A diary.

D

Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people. Shy people are anxious and self-conscious; that is, they are concerned with their own appearance and actions too much. Negative thoughts are constantly occurring in their minds: What kind of impression am I making? Do they like me? Do I sound stupid? Am I wearing unattractive clothes?

It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must affect people unfavorably. A persons self-concept is reflected in the way he or she behaves and the way a person behaves affects other peoples reactions. In general, the way people think about themselves has a deep effect on all areas of their lives.

Shy people, who have low respect, are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need faith that they are doing “the right thing”. Shy people are very sensitive to criticism. It makes them feel inferior. They also find it difficult to be pleased by praises because they believe they are unworthy of praise. A shy person may respond to a praise with a statement like this one: “Youre just saying that to make me feel good. I know its not true.” It is clear that, while self-awareness is a healthy quality, overdoing it is harmful.

Can shyness be completely got rid of, or at least reduced? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determination since shyness goes hand in hand with lack of self-respect. It is important for people to accept their weakness as well as their strengths. Each one of us has his or her own characteristics. We are interested in our own personal ways. The better we understand ourselves, the easier it becomes to live up to our chances for a rich and successful life.

12. What is the first paragraph mainly about?

A. The cause of shyness. B. The feelings of shy people.

C. The effect of shyness on people. D. The questions in the minds of shy people.

13. What does the underlined word “inferior” in Paragraph 3 mean?

A. Proud. B. Optimistic. C. Bad. D. Guilty.

14. What is “self-awareness” regarded as by the author?

A. A good characteristic. B. A kind of harm to people.

C. A cause of unhappiness. D. A weak point of shy people.

15. What can we learn about shyness from the text?

A. It makes us lose our own characteristics. B. It can block our chances for a successful life.

C. It makes us understand ourselves better. D. It can be got rid of easily with high self-awareness.

(八)

A

Late Summer and Fall Cruise Deals for Families

If you and the kids are expecting a different type of holiday, a cruise might be what youre looking for. These completely packaged cruises are available for September, October and December sailings, so chat with a travel expert and book now!

8-Night Caribbean Vacation

What: For an after-holiday cruise, a 7-night Caribbean cruise aboard Royal Caribbeans Oasis of the Seas on December 26 might be the way to go, with rates that start at $1,799 per person.

Whats Included: This package includes a 7-night cruise, a 1-night hotel stay in Fort Lauderdale, and transfers to ship.

9-Night Hawaii Vacation

What: Sail aboard Norwegians Pride of America to Hawaii and discover its heritage and history with this 9-night package that starts at $1,755 per person for the October 24 sailing.

Whats Included: The package includes a 7-night cruise, a 2-night hotel stay in Honolulu, a 2-night car rental, and ship and airport transfers.

10-Night Alaska Cruise Tour

What: Aboard NCLs Norwegian Sun, see glaciers, icebergs, whales and quiet Alaskan fishing towns on September 7 just before summer officially ends. Rates start at $1,614 per person.

Whats Included: This summer package includes a 7-night cruise, a 3-night cruise tour, and transfers to ship.

8-Night Alaska Vacation

What: Take a 7-night Alaskan cruise with the kids aboard NCLs Norwegian Jewel on September 12, with money-saving rates that start at $1,092 per person.

Whats Included: The package includes a 7-night cruise, a 1-night hotel room near the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, and transfers to your hotel and ship.

1. Which is proper for a family to have a vacation in October?

A. 8-Night Caribbean Vacation. B. 9-Night Hawaii Vacation.

C. 10-Night Alaska Cruise Tour. D. 8-Night Alaska Vacation.

2. How much should one pay at least to enjoy the Alaskan fishing towns?

A. $1,799. B. $1,755. C. $1,614. D. $1,092.

3. What should you choose to spend a few days at sea if you have a tight budget?

A. 8-Night Caribbean Vacation. B. 9-Night Hawaii Vacation.

C. 10-Night Alaska Cruise Tour. D. 8-Night Alaska Vacation.

B

Ten years ago, I went on a vacation in Italy. After climbing up a hill for a panoramic (全景的) view of the blue sea, white buildings and green olive trees, I paused to catch my breath and then positioned myself to take the best photo of this panorama.

Unfortunately, just as I took out my camera, a woman approached from behind, and planted herself right in front of my view. Like me, this woman was here to stop, sigh and appreciate the view.

Patient as I was, after about 15 minutes, I grew frustrated. Was it too much to ask her to move so I could take just one picture of the landscape? Sure, I could have asked her, but something prevented me from doing so. She seemed so content in her observation. I didnt want to mess with that. Another 15 minutes passed and I grew bored. The woman was still there. I decided to take the photo anyway.

Now when I look at the photo, I think her presence in the photo is what makes the image interesting. The landscape, beautiful on its own, somehow comes to life and breathes because this woman is engaging with it.

This photo, with the unique beauty that unfolded before me and that woman who “ruined” it, now hangs on a wall in my bedroom. What would she think if she knew that her figure is captured and frozen on some strangers bedroom wall?

Perhaps we all live in each others spaces. Perhaps this is what photos are for: to remind us that we all appreciate beauty, that we all share a common desire for pleasure, for connection, for something that is greater than us.

4. What happened when the author was about to take a photo?

A. Her camera stopped working. B. A woman blocked her view.

C. Someone asked her to leave. D. A friend approached from behind.

5. What was the woman probably doing when the author was to take the photo?

A. Enjoying herself. B. Losing her patience. C. Waiting for the sunset. D. Thinking about her past.

6. What makes the photo so alive according to the author?

A. The rich color of the landscape. B. The perfect positioning of the camera.

C. The womans existence in the photo. D. The soft sunlight that summer day.

7. The photo on the authors bedroom wall enables her to better understand ___ .

A. the need to be close to nature B. the importance of private space

C. the joy of the vacation in Italy D. the shared passion for beauty

C

The idea of turning recycled plastic bottles into clothing is not new. During the last five years, a large number of clothing companies, businesses and environmental organizations have started turning plastics into fabric to deal with plastic pollution. But theres a problem with this method. Research now shows that microfibers could be the biggest source of plastic in the sea.

Dr Mark Browne in Santa Barbara, California, has been studying plastic pollution and microfibers for 10 years now. He explains that every time synthetic (合成的) clothes go into a washing machine, a large number of plastic fibers fall off. Most washing machines cant collect these microfibers. So every time the water gets out of a washing machine, microfibers are entering the sewers and finally end up in the sea.

Browne wrote a paper stating that a single piece of synthetic clothing can produce more than 1,900 fibers per wash. Browne collected samples from seawater and freshwater sites around the world, and used a special way to examine each sample. He discovered that every single water sample contained microfibers.

This is bad news for a number of reasons. Plastic can cause harm to sea life when eaten. Studies have also shown that plastic can absorb other pollutants.

Based on this evidence, it may seem surprising that companies and organizations have chosen to turn plastic waste into clothing as an environmental “solution”. Even though the science has been around for a while, Browne explains that hes had a difficult time getting companies to listen. When he asked well-known clothing companies to support Benign by Design—his research project that seeks to get clothes that have a bad effect on humans and the environment out of the market, Browne didnt get a satisfying answer. Only one womens clothing company, Eileen Fisher, offered Browne funding.

8. What has happened during the past five years?

A. Fabric has become much stronger. B. Plastic pollution has been less serious.

C. Many plastic bottles have been reused. D. Microfibers have been greatly improved.

9. What does Browne think of the washing of synthetic clothes?

A. Its adding microfibers to the clothes. B. Its worsening environmental problems.

C. Its making synthetic clothes last longer. D. Its doing great damage to washing machines.

10. What can we learn about Brownes Benign by Design research project?

A. It has achieved great success. B. It has gotten a big funding.

C. Its known to very few people. D. Its facing some difficulties.

11. What is the best title for the text?

A. Its Important to Learn to Recycle B. Its Never Easy to Solve Pollution Problems

C. Recycled Plastic Clothing: Solution or Pollution? D. Are Human Beings Moving Forward or Backward?

D

We hope youve finally made your peace with Pluto being downgraded from a planet to an ice dwarf (冰矮星), because we have some more jarring news for you: It seems your teachers may have been wrong about the number of continents on the earth, too.

Earlier this year, scientists published a report in the journal of the Geological Society of America detailing an eighth continent called Zealandia, roughly the size of India and almost completely hid itself under the Pacific Ocean east of Australia. Covering all of New Zealand as well as several nearby islands, Zealandia likely spent the best of its above-water days as part of the supercontinent Gondwana before fragmenting off Australia and Antarctica some 80 million years ago. This lost, underwater continent is just beginning to reveal its secrets, making for one of the most promising scientific discoveries this year.

While researchers have been aware of the 1.9 million-square-mile mass for two decades, Zealandia has only recently become the object of serious study since the Geological Society paper argued that it fits all the criteria for a proper continent, including a continental crust (地殼) thats distinctly separate from the seabed in terms of elevation, thickness, and geology. A team of 32 scientists from 12 countries just completed their first visit to six dig sites around Zealandia, where they drilled up more than 8,000 feet of sediment cores (沉积物岩心) that will help explain the lost continents 80-million-year history.

Because there is no official body that formally recognizes continents, whether or not Zealandia ends up in future geography textbooks will come down to its acceptance by the scientific community at large, possibly with a little help from travelers like you.

12. Why does the author mention Pluto?

A. To show pity to Pluto. B. To introduce the topic.

C. To go against the teachers. D. To explain the ice dwarf.

13. What do we know about Zealandia in Paragraph 2?

A. It neighbors Australia. B. It belongs to Gondwana now.

C. It is similar to Antarctica in size. D. It has a history of over 80 billion years.

14. What can probably help discover more secrets about Zealandia?

A. The sediment cores on Zealandia. B. The wildlife in New Zealand.

C. The standard for a continent. D. The seabed near Antarctica.

15. Where is this text most likely from?

A. A travel brochure. B. An advertisement.

C. A geography magazine. D. A science fiction.

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